Tuberculosis (TB) caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex remains one of the major public health problems, especially in developing countries. The emergence of drug resistant tuberculosis (both multi-drug resistant and extensively drug resistant tuberculosis) is widely considered a serious threat to global TB control. The present thesis provides an overview of the rapid conventional tools and newer molecular method Line Probe Assays (LPA) to effectively address the threats of drug resistant tuberculosis, global initiatives are required to scale-up culture and drug susceptibility testing capacities. Detecting RIF & INH resistance directly on sputum smears positive specimens and smear negative culture positive specimens. Evaluation of Rapid Diagnosis of clinical specimens using PCR &LPA. LPA method is used to diagnose Mycobacterium tuberculosis and its resistance to Isoniazid and Rifampicin. LPA is highly sensitive (>=97%) and specific (>=99%) for the detection of RIF resistance, alone or in combination with INH (sensitivity >=90%; specificity >=99%), on isolates of M. tuberculosis and on smear-positive sputum specimens.